Current demand for SARS‐CoV‐2 testing is straining material resource and labor capacity around the globe. As a result, the public health and clinical community are hindered in their ability to monitor and contain the spread of COVID‐19. Despite broad consensus that more testing is needed, pragmatic guidance towards realizing this objective has been limited. This paper addresses this limitation by proposing a novel and geographically agnostic framework (the 4Ps Framework) to guide multidisciplinary, scalable, resource‐efficient, and achievable efforts towards enhanced testing capacity. The 4Ps (Prioritize, Propagate, Partition, and Provide) are described in terms of specific opportunities to enhance the volume, diversity, characterization, and implementation of SARS‐CoV‐2 testing to benefit public health. Coordinated deployment of the strategic and tactical recommendations described in this framework have the potential to rapidly expand available testing capacity, improve public health decision‐making in response to the COVID‐19 pandemic, and/or to be applied in future emergent disease outbreaks.
This review provides insight in cross-species developmental differences of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties in the kidney, which should be considered in neonate/juvenile study interpretation, hypotheses generation, and experimental design.
Automated patch clamp (APC) instruments enable efficient evaluation of electrophysiologic effects of drugs on human cardiac currents in heterologous expression systems. Differences in experimental protocols, instruments, and dissimilar site procedures affect the variability of IC50 values characterizing drug block potency. This impacts the utility of APC platforms for assessing a drug’s cardiac safety margin. We determined variability of APC data from multiple sites that measured blocking potency of 12 blinded drugs (with different levels of proarrhythmic risk) against four human cardiac currents (hERG [IKr], hCav1.2 [L-Type ICa], peak hNav1.5, [Peak INa], late hNav1.5 [Late INa]) with recommended protocols (to minimize variance) using five APC platforms across 17 sites.
The need to develop new tools and increase capacity to test pharmaceuticals and other chemicals for potential adverse impacts on human health and the environment is an active area of development. The response to these challenges for a “paradigm shift” toward using new approach methodologies (NAMS) for safety assessment has resulted in an explosion of initiatives by numerous organizations, but, for the most part, these have been carried out independently and are not coordinated in any meaningful way. To help remedy this situation, a framework that presents a consistent set of criteria, universal across initiatives, to evaluate a NAM’s fit-for-purpose was developed by a multi-stakeholder group of industry, academic, and regulatory experts.
There is growing evidence that single substances present below their individual thresholds of effect may still contribute to combined effects. Here, the possible use of ecotoxicological threshold concentrations of no concern (i.e. 5th percentile of statistical distribution of ecotoxicological values) is investigated to fill data gaps in MRA.