Evaluation of Early Fetal Exposure to Vaginally-Administered Metronidazole in Pregnant Cynomolgus Monkeys

  • Publication Date :
  • Publication Type : Journal Article
  • Author(s) : Thompson KE, Newcomb DL, Moffat GJ, Zalikowski J, Chellman GJ, McNerney ME
  • Journal Name : Reproductive Toxicology

Reproductive Toxicology.  2016;59:17-21

Abstract: Given concern about potential embryo-fetal harm following seminal exposure to drugs with teratogenic potential, pharmaceutical companies use theoretical calculations to estimate seminal concentrations, maternal exposure, and distribution across the placenta to the embryo-fetal compartment for risk assessment. However, it is plausible that there are additional mechanisms whereby the conceptus is exposed. In order to determine if theoretical calculations are sufficiently conservative to predict embryo-fetal exposure from drugs in semen, pregnant cynomolgus monkeys were given a vaginal dose of metronidazole during the earlyfetal period and cesarean-sectioned. Maternal, fetal, and amniotic fluid samples were analyzed for metronidazole and 2-hydroxymetronidazole. Exposure to metronidazole and its metabolite were comparable in all matrices. These data demonstrated no preferential transfer mechanism to conceptus following intravaginal administration of a small molecule drug; and therefore, suggest that traditional modeling for embryo-fetal exposure to drugs in semen in support of risk assessment for pharmaceutical agents is sufficiently conservative.

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