Hemangiosarcoma in Rodents: Mode-of-Action Evaluation and Human Relevance

  • Publication Date :
  • Publication Type : Journal Article
  • Author(s) : Cohen SM, Storer RD, Criswell KA, Doerrer NG, Dellarco VL, Pegg DG, Wojcinski ZW, Malarkey DE, Jacobs AC, Klaunig JE, Swenberg JA
  • Journal Name : Toxicological Sciences

Toxicological Sciences. 2009;111(1):4-18

Abstract: Although rarely occurring in humans, hemangiosarcomas (HS) have become important in evaluating the potential human risk of several chemicals, including industrial, agricultural, and pharmaceutical agents. Spontaneous hemangiosarcomas arise frequently in mice, less commonly in rats, and frequently in numerous breeds of dogs. This review explores knowledge gaps and uncertainties related to the mode of action (MOA) for the induction of hemangiosarcomas in rodents, and evaluates the potential relevance for human risk. For genotoxic chemicals (vinyl chloride and thorotrast), significant information is available concerning the MOA. In contrast, numerous chemicals produce hemangiosarcomas in rodents by non-genotoxic, proliferative mechanisms. An overall framework is presented, including direct and indirect actions on endothelial cells, paracrine effects in local tissues, activation of bone marrow endothelial precursor cells, and tissue hypoxia. Numerous obstacles are identified in investigations into the MOA for mouse hemangiosarcomas and the relevance of the mouse tumors to humans, including lack of identifiable precursor lesions, usually late occurrence of the tumors, and complexities of endothelial biology. This review proposes a working MOA for HS induced by non-genotoxic compounds that can guide future research in this area. Importantly, a common MOA appears to exist for the non-genotoxic induction of HS, where there appears to be a convergence of multiple initiating events (e.g., hemolysis, decreased respiration, adipocyte growth) leading to either dysregulated angiogenesis and/or erythropoiesis that produces hypoxia and macrophage activation. These later events lead to the release of angiogenic growth factors and cytokines that stimulate endothelial cell proliferation, which, if sustained, provide the milieu that can lead to HS formation.

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